By: Prof. Dr. Hj. Uswatun Hasanah
Professor of The Faculty of Law UI
Fatwa Committee Member of MUI
Even though stepping on the Holy Mecca is such a dream for every Moslem, there are people who do not understand the Hajj itself. Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam that every capable Muslim must perform.
Etymologically, Hajj is a goal, “intent and deliberate”. Fiqh scholars define Hajj as “deliberately coming to the Ka’bah to perform certain deeds” or “visiting a certain place at a certain time to perform certain deeds”. In more detail, the scholars of Fiqh explained that what is meant by certain places in the definition of haj is the Ka’bah and Arafah, and what is meant by a certain time is Asyhur al-Hajj, the months (for the implementation of worship) of Hajj. In addition, every practice that is done during the pilgrimage has special times as well. The expression “certain practice” in the definition of Hajj above implies that every practice which is harmonious, obligatory, and the conditions for this pilgrimage must begin with the intention of Hajj and carried out in a state of ihram.
Since Hajj is an obligatory for every Moslem, the pilgrimage has wisdom, both for those who carry out the pilgrimage themselves, and for society in general. Allah requires the pilgrimage for a number of purposes and a variety of wisdom. By performing the pilgrimage one can witness first-hand the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and know the places where he lived in Mecca and Medina. Thus, he can also describe how the atmosphere was when the Prophet fought for the spread of Islam together with his friends who sincerely devoted body and soul to fighting in the way of Allah.
In the front of the Ka’bah, the pilgrims will also recall the blessings of Prophet Ibrahim and his son, Prophet Ismail and his mother, Hajar as an example of a family full of sincerity, patience, faith, and piety so that any command is considered light. Although he had to face a severe test such as God’s command to Prophet Ibrahim to slaughter his beloved son, namely Isma’il. The ritual of pilgrimage also reminds the perpetrator of the efforts of the Mother of Ismail who ran between the hills of Shafa and Marwa many times while humming a request to God for the life of his baby, until then came the well Zamzam, which still radiates its water for thousands of years until now.
The Manifestation of Servitude
Pilgrimage also contains elements of manifestation or shows the status of a man’s servitude before Allah. During ihram, for example, the pilgrims dress up only by ihram cloth to shows that as a human who have nothing before Allah, while asking forgiveness for all sins and mistakes. During the pilgrimage, the equality of Muslims shows obviously since they gather in the same place. The pilgrim kneels, destroying the power before Allah. Shows no difference between one tribe and another, one race and another, the rich and the poor, and no privilege between one person and another. Hajj implies an effective force for the unity of Muslims from all corners of the world and is an opportunity for the ummah getting know one another and build brotherhood. Therefore, the Moslems are able to strengthen brotherhood from all corners of the world.
If the pilgrimage is conducted as it is taught by the Prophet of Muhammad, it will undoubtedly have a positive influence on the pilgrim, as well as for their social life. Besides, it will make him closer to Allah, humble, generous, lowly. The pilgrim also will be more consistent in dealing with various things in this life. Moreover, if the pilgrim concerned gets a spiritual experience that causes the person to feel that he is only a weak and helpless unless with Allah’s permission.
After going through the Hajj, the point obtained is all the humans are the same, as servants of Allah. The pleasures of the world are due to Allah’s grace. Thus, he will get closer to Allah and in navigating life in this world, he will always follow Allah’s guidance contained in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.
Social Life Implication
The implications in social life are quite a lot and among which are: the pilgrimage can foster high social discipline. People who have performed the Hajj will undoubtedly be responsive to what happens in society, and are ready to help both in the form of energy and assets. In addition, the Hajj can also increase cooperation and help others. During the Hajj pilgrimage a person will not be able to live alone, but there must be cooperation and help among ummah. The experience during which he is concerned is carrying out the Hajj, in which the help among the ummah is very strong, usually the person will also apply the positive impact of Hajj after returning to his homeland such as more concerned about the poor, the neglected, and those in need.
Based on the author’s observations, the Hajj can also increase the sense of brotherhood among Moslems. The sense of brotherhood that is embedded as long as the person concerned performs the pilgrimage, usually also greatly influences his life in the community when he arrives in the country. In addition, the Hajj can foster respect and appreciate with others. As it is well known that in carrying out the Hajj, a person will meet people who come from various countries who have different customs. Such conditions will clearly train the congregation concerned to have a broad view and tolerance of the attitudes and opinions of others, especially in the field of muamalah. What is more important, if done and lived well, Hajj can also create unity of Muslims.
Hajj is one of the Islamic Pillars that must be performed by every Muslim who is capable to do it. According to the Qur’an: “…And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.”
Thus, Muslims who have met the requirements to perform Hajj are only obliged do once and must be supported with lawful sustenance since Allah will not accept the prayer supported from the unlawful things! Abu Huraira narrated that The Messenger of Allah said: “Verily Allah the Exalted is pure (tayyib). He does not accept but that which is pure. Allah commands the believers with what He commanded the Messengers. Allah the Almighty has said: “O you Messengers! Eat of the good things and act righteously”. And Allah the Almighty also said: “O you who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided you with. Then he (the Prophet) mentioned (the case of) the man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty and who stretches out his hands to the sky (saying): “O Lord! O Lord!” (while) his food was unlawful, his drink was unlawful, his clothing was unlawful, and he is nourished with unlawful things, so how can he be answered?” [Muslim]
The pilgrims who perform Hajj more than once apart from worshiping Allah sometimes also due to duties or other reasons, such as duties from the Government. This happened to employees and officials of the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia. There is also because the person concerned is the guide for the pilgrims; and there are also people who perform the pilgrimage because they really want to get closer to Allah.
A person usually has prepared himself well before carrying out the Hajj or Umrah, including the funds that he will use. For people who already understand the meaning and purpose of the pilgrimage, that person will always ask Allah for forgiveness for the sins he has committed by multiplying istighfar and repentance. Then also apologize to fellow humans for mistakes he may have made in social interactions. When he is going to pay the cost of Hajj, usually the person concerned also uses assets that are truly lawful and tayyib, because as already mentioned, the pilgrimage must use assets that are believed to be truly lawful. Not mixed with those who are syubhat, let alone haram.
If the pilgrimage is carried out properly and correctly in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law and using lawful money, God willing, the congregation will become a mabrur hajj. In his life and life, he will always try to carry out his obligations and stay away from the prohibitions of Allah that have been stipulated in the Al-Qur’an, which is then further explained and exemplified by the Messenger of Allah in His Sunnah.
In addition, he will also always improve his social worship by strengthening his relationship with others, helping people in need, such as supporting orphans and needy children, either directly or through related institutions, because the haj is an integrated combination of all elements. -The element of worship, both Mahdlah and Ghairu Mahdlah worship. Thus, he will become an example for the people around him. If he were an official, he would undoubtedly become a role model for his subordinates so that he was able to break down practices that were not in accordance with Islamic law. Hopefully this short article is useful for all of us. (USM)