Islam does not only regulate matters of ritual Mahdhah worship. But it is a teaching as well as a living system that organizes and covers all aspects of daily life as non-ritual worship, or it is also called Ghoiru-Mahdhah. Included in it, what is familiar in our daily lives is traveling or picnics and leisure trips. In Islam, it is called Safar.
Originally, traveling was considered as a mere activity of worldly life, it is said to be hedonistic. However, for those of us who believe, safar which is initially perceived as such negatively, will undoubtedly have value as worship, if it is carried out based on Shari’a. In fact, the Muslim will also receive rewards, mercy and blessings from Allah.
In order to achieve the value of worship, while also maintaining morals with istiqamah, it is necessary to pay attention to and implement the guidance in doing safar, as described in the book “Aadaab Islaamiyyah”, by ‘Abdul Hamid bin’ Abdirrahman as-Suhaibani, and has also translated into Indonesian with the title “Adab Harian Muslim Teladan”, Translator Zaki Rahmawan, Publisher Ibnu Katsir Library Bogor. Are as follows:
Intending safar as worship, to protect ourself and avoid immorality, and get rewards from Allah. This kind of thing is emphasized in the hadith of the Prophet, “Surely every action depends on the intention. And actually everyone (will be rewarded) based on what he intended. ” (Muttafaq ‘alayhi, HR Imam Bukhari and Muslim).
Not to Travel alone. A Muslim should travel with several people. It is safer and can remind each other of goodness and prohibit evil on the way. From ‘Amr bin Syu’aib from his father, from his grandfather, that Muhammad said: “One who drives alone is a devil, a person who drives two is a demon, a person who drives three is the one who drives the right one.” HR. Imam Malik in Al-Muwatha, Abu Dawud, and At-Tirmidhi).
It is also narrated from Ibn Umar, Rasulullah Saw said: “If people knew the consequences of doing self-meditation as I know, they would not have gone on safari at night alone.” (Narrated by Bukhari).
Looking for a pious safar companion. A person with a strong attitude should look for pious traveling companions. So that the journey is full of useful things, far from futility and immorality. The Prophet said: “The state of a person’s religion is seen from the state of the religion of his close friends. Thus, let you find / choose who his close friends are. ” (HR. Tirmidhi).
Rasulullah also said, “For example, a good friend and a bad friend is like a perfume seller and a blacksmith. The perfume seller might give you perfume, or you can buy perfume from him, and even if you don’t, you will still get the scent of him. As for the blacksmith, it could be (the spark of fire) about your clothes, and even if you don’t you still get the smell of the smoke. ” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).
Amirussafar (trip leader) if traveling more than three persons, especially in the party with regard to the safar in congregation or in groups that have been mentioned above, it is necessary or even to be appointed an Amir or leader of the group, to be obeyed together. In order to avoid disputes, such as in determining congregational prayer or qashar. It is stated in the hadith: “If three people (go out) to travel, then let them appoint one of them as the leader of the group.” [HR. Abu Dawud).
Described in Syarah Riyadhus Sholihin (vol. 3 p. 79), said Asy-Shaykh Al-‘Uthaimin: “The Messenger of Allah ordered the travellers to appoint one of them to be a leader in order to manage their affairs, telling them,” Now we are leaving., we sit, we do ablution ! we have dinner first …! ” and things like that. If they do not appoint a leader who manages their affairs, their affairs will undoubtedly fall apart.
Reciting the prayer. As for qashar (summarize) while traveling, it is more recommended (if it meets the safar distance limit). Ibn Umar said: “I used to accompany Rasulullah and he never added prayers more than two rakats in a safar. Likewise, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, radhiallahu’anhum. ” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)
Qasas prayer while safar is sunah muakkadah (very emphasized). To pray qashar prayer is to do the Zuhur prayer or Asar prayer or Isha prayer for only two rakaats. It cannot be done as for Maghrib prayer and Fajr prayer.
This is implied in the verse which explains, ” When you travel through the land, it is permissible for you to shorten the prayer—?especially? if you fear an attack by the disbelievers. Indeed, the disbelievers are your sworn enemies.” (Surah An-Nisa’: 101). In this verse, qashar prayer is associated with fear, because it is true that during Safar it generally acts like that.
Qashar prayer is a rukhsoh or relief-convenience from Allah with the guidance of the Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad, “Qashar prayer is almsgiving that Allah gives to you. Thus, accept the alms. ” (HR. Muslim). A well-known opinion in the Shafi’i school, qashar praying during safar is more effective than perfect prayer if it has reached safar for three days.
Pray before Leave. From Anas bin Malik, Rasulullah said: “When a person leaves his house then he recites a prayer: bismillaahi tawakkaltu ‘alallahi laa haula walaa quwwata illaa billah (by mentioning the name of Allah, who has no power no strength except by the permission of Allah), then it is said to him, ‘You will be guided, you will be provided for, and you will be protected’. At that moment, the demons left him. Then one of the devils said to his friend, ‘How can you disturb a person who has been guided, adequately, and protected (by Allah).’ “(Narrated by Abu Dawud, and At-Tirmidhi).
Goodbye to family and neighbours. It is suggested to say goodbye to family and neighbours as well as relatives before the safar. From Ibn Umar, he said: “Usually Rasulullah said goodbye to us (before the safar) and then recited the prayer: astaudi’ullah diinaka wa amaanataka wa khowaatima amalika (I entrust to Allah, your religion, your mandate, and the closing of your deeds).” (HR. Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi).
And those who are left behind, recite the prayer as mentioned in the hadith: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said if he gave a message of departure to someone, he said: and make it easier for you wherever you are).” (HR. At-Tirmidhi).
Writing a will. The will in question is to convey a message to family members. Do you as a musafir (traveller) have debts or not? Have the same problem with people or not? Have trust from someone else to deliver, or not? And so on.
These things need to be written and explained in the will made. Because we do not know when death will pick up. Maybe during the safar, the angel of death came to pick me up. Notice Allah says, “Indeed, Allah ?alone? has the knowledge of the Hour. He sends down the rain,1 and knows what is in the wombs.2 No soul knows what it will earn for tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it will die. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (QS. Luqman: 34).
Reading prayers in a vehicle. When riding in any vehicle, it is recommended to recite the prayer: “Subhaanalladzi sakhkhoro lanaa hadza wa maa kunna lahu muqrinin. Wa innaa ila robbinaa lamunqolibuun ”. (“Glory be to Allah who has subdued this vehicle for us even though we were previously unable to control it, and indeed we will return to our Lord”).
This is as indicated by the verse which means: “And Who created all things in pairs and made for you ships and cattle that you ride. That you may sit on its back and then remember the favour of your Lord when you have sat on it; and that you may say, “And ?He is the One? Who created all ?things in? pairs,1 and made for you ships and animals to ride. ” (QS. Zukhruf: 12-14).
There are also other longer prayer editors. In the hadith of Ibn Umar, he said: “Rasulullah, when ascending to his camel to go on safar, he echoed takbir 3x then said: Subhaanalladzi sakhkhoro lanaa hadza wa maa kunna lahu muqrinin. Wa innaa ila robbinaa lamunqolibuun. Allahumma innaa nas’aluka fi safarinaa hadza al birro wat taqwa wa minal ‘amali ma tardhoa. Allahumma hawwin ‘alainaa safaronaa hadza, wathwi’ annaa bu’dahu. Allahumma antash shoohibu fis safar, wal kholiifatu fil ahli. Allahumma inni a’udzubika min wa’tsaa-is safari wa ka-aabatil manzhori wa suu-il munqolabi fil maali wal ahli.
(Glory be to Allah who has subdued this vehicle for us even though we were previously unable to control it, and indeed we will return to our Lord. O Allah we ask for goodness and piety in our safar and pleasure in our deeds. O Allah make this safar easy for us. Fold the distance of this safar. O Allah You are the one who accompanies us in this safar, and the successor who takes care of our family. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the hardships of this safar, from the sad scenery, and from the bad return of good in matters property and family matters) ”(HR. Muslim)
Increase prayers during the trip. Muslims should use travel time to Dzikrullah, recite dhikr in remembrance of Allah, and pray to Him. Because when safar is a mustajab time, prayer is granted. From Abu Hurairah, Rasulullah said: “There are three prayers that must be granted and there is no doubt about it: the prayer of a person who is oppressed, the prayer of a traveller, the bad prayers of parents towards their children ‘” (HR. Imam Ahmad, and Abu Dawud).
Upon entering a village or place, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also taught the prayer as he said: “Whoever stops somewhere then he says ‘Audzu Bi Kalimaatillahit-Taammaati Min Syarri Maa Khalaq’ (I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah from the evils of beings which He created), then no one can harm him until he moves from that place. ” (HR. Muslim).
Finding and consuming only halal food and begun by prayer. For example, if necessary, by eating and drinking only in restaurants or restaurants that are believed to be halal. It was narrated from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that he said, Rasulullah said: Seeking (consuming sustenance) that is halal is an obligation after an obligation. ” (HR ath-Thabarani in Mu’jam al-Kabîr, al-Baihaqi in Syu’ab al-Imân, Abu Nu’aim in Ma’rifah ash-Shahâbah and al-Qudha’i in Musnad Syihab al-Qudhâ’i) .
In a hadith that is popular and has been taught-trained since childhood, it is narrated from Abdullah bin ‘Amr, from the Prophet SAW, “that He Saw when about to eat and the meal was brought to him, he prayed: / Alloohumma baarik lanaa fiimaa rozaqtanaa waqinaa’ adzaabannaar / ( O Allah, bless the food that You have given us, and keep us away from the torment of Hell). Bismillah. ” (HR. Ath-Thabrani in Chapter Ad-Du’a).
From the hadith can be understood, seek and consume halal sustenance will bring blessings, and avoid the punishment of hell.
Pray two rakats after the safar. It is recommended when returning from safar, before heading home, should pray two rak’ahs in the mosque. From Ka’ab bin Malik, he said: “The Prophet, if he returned from safar, he first entered the mosque then prayed two rakats in the mosque then sat down.” (HR. Bukhari, and Muslim).
When returning there is an addition: aayibuuna taa-ibuuna ‘aabiduuna lirobbinaa mambiduuna “(We return, in a state of repentance and worship to our Rabb, and praise Him)” (HR. Muslim).
Should people who will travel far learn fiqh safar. Including as safar manners, understand the fiqh safar, and other things related to this very important thing.
By understanding and practicing fiqh safar, hopefully the safar, or the journey of our lives in general, can be a worship and obtain grace and blessings from Allah, in the world and in the hereafter. (USM)
*Summarized from various sources