Prof. Dr. Hj. Khuzaemah T. Yanggo
Professor of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta,
The Rector of Institut Ilmu Al-Quran (IIQ) Jakarta,
The Chairman of the Central MUI
When examined in chronology of worship in the guidance of sharia, one can see and understand a beautiful series of the very inspiring journey of human life. In the month of Ramadan, every Muslim is required to fast, to practice intensely to control the passions that pollute the soul. Then at the end of Ramadan it is obligatory to purify life and property with the obligation to fulfill Zakat Fitrah and other Zakat, if it has fulfilled the calculation of the reckoning and nisab. So that in the month of Shawwal, Mu’min who fasts properly, can return to the purity of his soul and human nature.
From Lughowi’s side, the phrase “Syawal” means increasing. Namely that the Muslims’ worship should have increased better than in previous months. And a significant increase was made by performing the pilgrimage, in the month of Dzulhijjah, as a momentum of struggle that required great sacrifice. Meanwhile, Muslims who do not go for the pilgrimage to the Holy Land are advised to also sacrifice by slaughtering sacrificial animals during Eid al-Adha.
After going through a series of coaching and training agendas designed directly by Allah the Designer, it is hoped that there will be changes, improvements as well as an increase in the spirit of the believers in the month of Muharram and beyond, which is known as the momentum of Hijrah.
Hijrah in Muharram
“Muharram” itself comes from an Arabic word which means ‘forbidden’ or ‘challenged’. In the beginning that was forbidden to do war or bloodshed. Next, of course, must be guarded with istiqomah, so as not to commit immorality which is prohibited by religion. Not only in the month of Muharram, but also so on, throughout the ages. Until Allah’s provision arrives. And the beginning of Muharram was recorded as a momentum of hijrah in the history of da’wah, which later became the “Milestone” of the Hijri year in the Islamic calendar.
Linguists interpret the phrase “migration” as to avoid, to stay away from something, both physically and verbally, as well as the heart and soul. Hijrah with the body means moving from one place to another, “[then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally]” (QS. 4: 34). Hijrah verbally means avoiding dirty and vile words as the word of Allah.
“And the Messenger has said, “O my Lord, indeed my people have taken this Qur’an as [a thing] abandoned.” (QS. 73: 10). While migrating with the heart means avoiding something without showing deeds, as Allah says, “The Messenger has said, “O my Lord, indeed my people have taken this Qur’an as [a thing] abandoned.” (QS. 25: 30): “And uncleanliness avoids.” (QS. 74: 5)
The Whole Essence of Hijrah
Hijrah is self-purifying, refers to the verse in the Qur’an: “And the deeds of sin, then stay away.” (QS. 74: 5) and His words: “And uncleanliness avoid.” (QS. 74: 5) and The Word of Allah, “And be patient over what they say and avoid them with gracious avoidance.” (QS. 73: 10).
Both of the above verses came down at the time the Prophet Muhammad started preaching. At that time, He was commanded by Allah to stay away from heinous and evil deeds and from following the acts of shirk and sin as done by the polytheists in the city of Mecca at that time. The Prophet performed hijrah so that the hearts, words, and deeds become clean from all vices, sins and shirk. In addition, Allah also commanded Rasulullah to be patient with insults, insults, torture, intimidation & all forms of rejection that are subtle and rude, and try to avoid them in a good way. This is the method applied by Prophet Muhammad in preaching to his companions until finally He saw succeeded in forming the best generation in the sight of Allah. If only the People of the Scripture had believed, it would have been better for them. Among them are believers, but most of them are defiantly disobedient.” (QS. Ali Imran, 3: 110). A generation that has strong Aqedah, clean from polytheism, disbelief, and hypocrisy, strong & resilient, has a close bond of Islamic brotherhood.
The story of Umar bin Khathab is interesting for us to see; in the early days of preaching before embracing Islam, he was known as the “leader of the criminals”. But after moving he became a respected leader of the people, tawadhu and likes to help the poor. Umar used to be phobia against Islam, however after knowing Islam, he became a milestone for the upholding of Islamic teaching. Likewise, the story of Khalid bin Walid, who was called Saifullah, the Sword of Allah. That is, many lead wars to defend Allah’s religion. And many other figures. All of this is concrete evidence of their journey of migration from darkness, kufr and disobedience to the light of Allah’s religion. That is why the Holy Prophet said, “It is best that you were in the era of Jahiliya, as well as you were in the era of Islam, if they would understand”. Thus, it is clear, “Hijrah” generally means: leaving all forms of disobedience & munkar, both in feelings (hearts), words and deeds.
Hijrah is also the sunnah of the prophets before Prophet Muhammad, where Allah ordered his messengers to migrate, to do self-improvement first. Like Prophet Ibrahim, when he sought the true truth & found it, he said to his people, “And [then] he said, “Indeed, I will go to [where I am ordered by] my Lord; He will guide me.”. (QS. 37: 99). “And Lot believed him. [Abraham] said, “Indeed, I will emigrate to [the service of] my Lord. Indeed, He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (QS. Al-Ankabut, 29:26)
This hijrah is indeed very difficult since it needs patience. It is also required to have ideological and belief resilience so that it is not easily seduced by the seduction and temptation of the pleasures of the world which is mortal and has self-resilience. It is not easy to be flexible when the trials & tribulations come any time. Trying to differentiate oneself even though they live among those who are unbelievers and deny the guidance of Allah’s religion. One of the characteristics of a true Muslim is the ability of “yakhtalitun walaakin yatamayyazun” (mixed in social interactions, but has its own characteristics / is not contaminated with immorality).
Allah has given an example, a very real parable, with a figure, Asiyah bint Muzahim, the wife of Pharaoh. She lived, lived and interacted in a very oppressive environment of disobedience and infidelity. In fact, she was cruelly tortured by her own husband, Pharaoh, a notorious king. Asiyah migrated and believed in Allah, following the guidance brought by the Prophet Moses. Despite being so tortured, his faith did not waver. So that Allah made her as an icon, an exemplary figure for the believers throughout the ages: “And Allah presents an example of those who believed: the wife of Pharaoh, when she said, “My Lord, build for me near You a house in Paradise and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing people. ” (QS. At-Tahrim, 66:11).
The urgency of hijrah today is clearly very large, because a community will not be good if every individual in that community has been damaged, but vice versa; whether a community depends on the individual himself. Because in order to form a community that is clean, obedient to Allah and His Shari’a – internal conditioning through cleansing the body and soul of all impurities, both hissi (inner) & zhahiri (visible) are very basic before making improvements to the external side.
Of the three forms of hijrah that have been described above: physically or physically, verbally and heart or soul; which is very important and decisive is the migration that starts with the heart. That is why the scholars say, among other things, the famous hadith about the intention or heart was put forward in connection with the hijrah: From Amir al-mu’minin, Abu Hafsh ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, he said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say, “Indeed charity depends on his intention, and one will only get according to what he intends. So, whoever migrates to Allah and His Messenger, then it is to Allah and His Messenger. And whoever is emigrating because of the world or because of the woman he wants to marry, then the migration is in accordance with where he migrated. ” (Narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, and four Hadith Imams).
Keeping the Pure Heart
From this hadith it is clear that it can be understood, the intention that is planted in the heart, greatly determines the value of the charity that is done with the limbs. In other words, the condition of the heart that gives rise to that intention, greatly determines the good or bad that will be done by the limbs physically or physically. This is confirmed again by the Prophet’s Hadith which states that the condition and role of the heart is very important and decisive: From An-Nu’man bin Basyir, the Prophet said, “Remember that in the body there is a lump of flesh. If it is good, then the whole body is good. If it is damaged, then the entire body is also damaged. Know that it is the heart (heart). ” (Narrated by Bukhari no. 52 and Muslim no. 1599).
Ibn Rajab Al-Hambali indicated that the good deeds of a person’s body and his ability to stay away from haram, also leave things that are righteous, it all depends on a good heart. (The Book of Jaami’ul ‘Ulum wal Hikam, 1: 210). The scholars stated that although the heart (heart) is small compared to other parts or parts of the body, the good and bad of the body depend on the condition of the heart. (See Sharh Muslim, 11:29). It is also stated that the heart is Malikul A’dhoo (king of the limbs), while the limbs are Junuduhu (his army). (The Book of Jaami’ul ‘Ulum, 1: 210).
Specifically, Shaykh Sholih Al-Fauzan said, “The kindness of the heart is to fear Allah, worry about His torment, be pious and love Him. If the heart is broken, that is, there is no fear of Allah, no fear of His torment, and no love for Him, then the whole body will also be damaged. Because the heart is in control of the entire body. If the controllers are good, then okay is controlled. If it is damaged, then everything that is controlled will be destroyed. Therefore, a Muslim should ask Allah for a good heart. If he is kind, then all his affairs are good. On the other hand, if it is damaged, it is not a good business. ” (Al-Minhah Ar-Robbaniyah fii Syarh Al-Arba’in An-Nawawiyah, p. 109).
In the hadith it is stated that what the Prophet often asked in his prayers was that his heart should be kept in goodness. He often prayed, “Ya muqollibal qulub tsabbit qolbi ‘alaa dikik (O Essence Who is Turning hearts, strengthen my heart above Your religion).” Umm Salamah once asked the Messenger of Allah, why this prayer was what she often read. The Holy Prophet replied, “O Umm Salamah, whose name is the human heart is always between the fingers of Allah. Whoever Allah wants; He will give strength in faith. But whoever it wants, Allah can lead him astray. ” (HR. Tirmidhi no. 3522).
So, if there is a devil’s whisper in your heart, you will commit immorality which is forbidden in religion, immediately migrate. Remove the whisper of the heart with that immoral desire, replace it with a desire that is lawful, in the form of good deeds, which is blessed by God.
The effort to get rid of the devil’s words is done by asking Allah for protection, as mentioned in the verse of the Qur’an: “And say, “My Lord, I seek refuge in You from the incitements of the devils. And I seek refuge in You, my Lord, lest they be present with me. ” [QS. Al-Mukminun, 23: 97-98].
That is what we should understand about the meaning and nature of hijrah, where a multidimensional crisis has become widespread in the body of Muslims, and is exacerbated by the erosion of Islamic norms in their bodies; There needs to be self-improvement as early as possible, starting with yourself, then after that family members, the surrounding environment, and the wider community. (USM)