By: Dr. KH. Abdur Rahman Dahlan, MA.
(Chairman of PB Al-Wasliyah, Member of the MUI Fatwa Commission)
Alhamdulillah, with the grace of Allah, we can still breathe the breath of life in the days leading up to Ramadhan 1441 H today. And the opportunity to meet this fasting month reminds us of those who believe in the obligation of “Ash-Shaum”, as part of the fourth Pillar of Islam. For those who still have the debt obligations of Ramadan fasting last year, due to shar’i obstacles, there is still an opportunity now to pay them, by doing Qodho fasting in this Sya’ban month.
To deal with Ramadan fasting in a moment, we need to train ourselves by multiplying the fasting of Sunnat in this Sya’ban month, following the example of the Rasulullah SAW, as well as physical and spiritual preparation to fulfill the obligations of the fourth pillar of Islam this year. Increasing fasting in the Sya’ban month is as training or warming up before entering the month of Ramadan. If someone is accustomed to fasting before Ramadan, of course he will be stronger and more eager to do the obligatory fasting in the month of Ramadan. (See: Lathoif Al Ma’arif, pp. 234-243).
Definition of Fasting
It should also be explained, from the lughowi side, “Ash-Shaum” means “Al-Imsak”, ie to refrain from (doing) something. As referred to in the meaning of the verse: “If you see a human being, then say:” Verily, I have vowed to fast for the Most Gracious God, so I will not speak to any man today.” (Qur’an, 19: 26). In the verse mentioned, Maryam fasted, namely “refrain from talking to a human being on that day”. So in practice in the community, “Ruling Time” with “Ramadhan Imsakiyah Schedule” means as a warning and a deadline to eat sahur and get ready to start fasting sharply, refrain from eating, drinking and other actions that cancel fasting in the month Ramadhan.
While “As-Shaum” (fasting) according to Syara’ is: “al-imsak” anil mufaththirati min thulu’il fajri ila ghurubis syamsi ma’anniyyati “. It means: refraining from anything that invalidates the fasting service from sunrise to sunset, accompanied by the intention of worship because of Allah alone, and fulfills certain conditions. In Fiqihiyyah explained in more detail, fasting is to refrain from lust, stomach lust and pubic lust, as well as from all concrete objects that enter cavities in the body (such as drugs and the like), within a certain period of time ie since the issuance of the second dawn (ie dawn shadiq) until the sun sets, certain people who fulfill the requirements are Muslim, baligh, intelligent, and not in menstruation and childbirth, accompanied by the intention that is the will of the heart to perform the act as worship for Allah “(Complete Islamic Jurisprudence by Drs. H Moh. Rifa’i, PT Karya Toha Putra, Semarang, 1978),
The obligation to restrain and control the passions can be likened to controlling wild animals. If you are able to subdue and control it, then the animal can be a ride that can take us to your destination safely, safely and comfortably. That is the lust that receives the grace and mercy of Allah: “Indeed, lust always leads to evil, except the lust blessed by my Rabb.” (G Joseph, 12: 53). God gives praise and heaven’s reply to those who are able to hold their passions: “As for those who are afraid of the greatness of their Lord and refrain from their desires, then truly heaven is their abode.” (Qur’an, 79: 40-41).
Preparation and Planning for Halal Life Targets
The issue that is no less important to consider in welcoming Ramadan is the preparation and planning of targets. This is more technical but important, because failing to prepare and plan means the same as preparing and planning to fail. Agenda of worship and amaliyah Ramadan such as fasting, tarwih prayer, recitations of the Qur’an, alms, and other worship needs to be prepared carefully planned. With good planning, God willing will greatly help maximize worship and good deeds in the glorious month.
Among worship that needs to be prepared and planned for example the target of reading the Qur’an. This is important, in order to maximize the quality and quantity of our Koran reading in the glorious month. Remembering the recitations of the Qur’an is one of the main practices that accompany shiyam worship. Ramadan is also called the Syahrul Qur’an. It is the month of the first Qur’an being revealed. Therefore the salaf used to make this month to multiply the reading of the Qur’an. Uthman bin Af-fan recited the Qur’an every three nights during the Tarawih prayer. This means that he reads approximately 10 juz in each of his Tarawih prayers. There are memhatangs every ten nights or 3 juz a day. Imam Shafi’i buried 60 times outside the prayer during Ramadan. This means, he khatam twice a day outside of prayer. There are still many amazing stories from the salaf in the matter of high enthusiasm in memorizing the Qur’an in the month of Ramadan.
Now, if we want to maximize the Qur’an’s recitations during Ramadan, there should be preparation and target planning. For example, if we target khatam 10 times during Ramadan, it means khatam every 3 days or 10 juz a day. If you want to khatam 5 times during Ramadan, it means that every six days khatam, or five juz in a day. Every time you pray, you read 1 juz. And so on. What is certain is that there should be targets and good planning and each of us should set targets according to our abilities, and arrange a detailed and neat schedule.
Another practice that needs to be prepared and planned is the target of alms. Because he is a major practice in the month of Ramadan in addition to fasting, reciting the Qur’an. Even alms in the month of Ramadan is primarily alms. Rasulullah SAW said, “Seafdhal-afdhal alms are in the month of Ramadan.” (Narrated by Tirmidhi). Therefore in the hadith it is also mentioned that the generosity of the Prophet increased in the month of Ramadan. And of course we must try to follow the example of the Rasulullah SAW. Ibn Abbas related that “The Messenger of Allah was the most generous human being. And he was even more generous in the month of Ramadan when Gabriel visited to mudarasah al-Qur’an. ” (Narrated by Bukhari).
Even more important than that, during the fasting month of Ramadan a month, training our lives leaves everything that is halal. Then, of course, we must leave all that is allowed. And as an obligation that must be fulfilled, we must leave everything that is forbidden by religion. So that after Ramadan and beyond, we have been trained and accustomed to the practice of life that is popular with the phrase “Halal is my life”. Consuming only halal and living life in a halal way. Leave everything that is unclean. So, that you can live a blessing, happy world wal akhirah.
Preparation of Knowledge About the Fiqh of Ramadan
Islam attaches great importance to knowledge before speaking and doing good deeds. Many verses of the Qur’an and the hadith of the Prophet, among them in the verse which means: “Then know, that in fact there is no God (worship) worthy of worship except Allah …” (Surah Muhammad: 19). The verse instructs to be knowledgeable before giving charity. Therefore Imam Bukhari in his authentic book wrote a special chapter on the importance of knowledge before giving to charity. He gave the title Chapter Al-muIl Qabla al-Qauli wa al-malAmal (Chapter About the Importance of Science Before Saying and Doing). Before including the hadiths of the Prophet relating to the title of the Chapter, he placed the verse first.
Knowledge is prioritized before doing good deeds, because among the conditions for accepting charity after sincerity is mutaba’ah. Namely the charity must be true and in accordance with shari’a and sunnah. Therefore, in order to welcome Ramadhan with knowledge, we need to even have to refresh the lessons of Fiqh of Worship during Ramadan, such as fasting, fiqh, tarawih prayer, zakat, alms, and other worship. So we have to attend and follow the scientific assemblies that are held such as in mosques, offices, and ta’lim assemblies in the environment. So, we can optimize worship in the month of blessing, God willing, in accordance with the guidance of the Sunnah. (USM)