Biscuits are one of the practical and economical dishes, becoming a favorite dish for all people. A variety of flavors are offered by biscuits packed using cans, box packaging, or eye-catching plastic.
Although practical, biscuits are the choice for most people because they are filling. In addition, foods made from flour and containing fat, protein, and other additives are considered to have high nutritional content.
There are several types of biscuits on the market, namely hard biscuits made from hard, flat, and densely textured dough. There are also crackers made from hard dough, through fermentation or ripening. While the third type is cookies, namely biscuits made from soft dough, high in fat content.
The different types of biscuits, of course, are also different from the manufacturing process. However, in broad outline, the process of making biscuits consists of mixing, forming and roasting. The mixing stage aims to evenly distribute the ingredients used and to obtain a dough with a smooth consistency. The ingredients that have been mixed, then printed according to the desired shape and size. The printed dough is then baked in the oven
The senior auditor of LPPOM MUI, Ir. Hj. Osmena Gunawan, reminded, because the material is quite diverse and the production process is not simple, Muslim consumers must look at the biscuits on the market. Because not all biscuits offered have been halal certified by MUI. Moreover, imported biscuit products. “As Muslim consumers, we must pay attention to the halal nature of the biscuit product before consuming biscuits. One way is to see the halal logo listed in the biscuit packaging,” said Osmena who is also the Deputy Director of LPPOM MUI.
In addition, do not forget to also criticize the raw material contained in the biscuit, because it could have come from ingredients that are not clearly halal. Osmena added, there are several critical points of opportunity for the entry of haram ingredients into biscuit products.
The following are some of the ingredients for biscuit makers, which are summarized from various sources:
Wheat flour is the main ingredient in making biscuit products. In Indonesia, flour is subject to the rules of vitamin and mineral fortification. Therefore
clarity of halal vitamins and minerals added needs to be considered.
Eggs contain albumen (egg white) which functions as a hardener and egg yolk which functions as a constituent. The addition of eggs in making biscuits also functions to add flavor, and add nutritional value.
The developer material serves to develop the dough so that the dough is bubbling, increasing in volume, and expanding. Of all these ingredients that must be watched out for is the cream of tartar. Cream of tartar is actually potassium salt from tartaric acid which can be obtained from the side products of the wine industry (a type of liquor). That is why this material needs to be watched out for halalness.
Flavor produces various flavors and aromas from biscuits produced. The flavor can be divided into 2 types, namely synthetic flavor and natural flavor. Flavors that use certain scents that are likened to unclean goods (pork and liquor) are not permitted.
Flavoring ingredients can be obtained from chemical, plant or animal synthetic compounds. If extracted from animals or based on animal amino acids, it must be ensured that this flavor comes from syar’i slaughtered halal animals.
Colorings commonly used in processed foods consist of 2 types, namely: synthetic dyes and natural dyes. Synthetic dyes are preferred by food manufacturers because they have a fairly good level of color stability and relatively cheap prices. Although it does not contain illicit ingredients, excessive use can have an adverse effect on the health of humans who consume it.
The natural dyes are usually less stable. To avoid color damage from the influence of temperature, light, and other environmental influences, coating agents are often added through the micro-encapsulation process. One type of coating that is often used is gelatin. Because it comes from animals, it must be ascertained whether the gelatin used is from halal or haram animals.
Shortening is often known as white butter. This material comes from fat, can be from animal fat, vegetable, or a mixture of both. Because it can come from animal fat, shortening is syubhat.
Margarine is made with the basic ingredients of plant fat. In the process of making it, there are often stabilizers, coloring agents, and added flavor which need to be criticized for halalness.
Bakers Yeast Instant (Yeast)
Yeast functions as a bread improver. In making it, sometimes an emulsifier is added. Well, if the emulsifier used comes from illegitimate ingredients, then this yeast will certainly not be halal. There is also a yeast which is a by-product of the beer industry known as the yeast brewer. The halal type of yeast depends on the process after being separated from the beer. The process must involve water that can ‘wash’ the color, smell, and aroma of the beer so that the yeast returns to holiness.
Cheese comes from animal milk, can come from cow’s milk, sheep/goat or camel. In making it, to obtain curd/solids, milk is coagulated with the help of enzymes and starters. If the enzyme used comes from the digestive tract of unclean animals, then, of course, the status will be unlawful.
In addition, the starter used in milk clots comes from micro-organisms (generally lactic acid bacteria). Well, the media used to grow these bacteria can come from halal media and unclean media.
Chocolate is widely used in biscuits as a topping or filling. In the manufacturing process, sometimes an emulsifier is needed. Emulsifiers can come from plant-based vegetable materials or animal products so they can be halal or haram. Besides the use of flavor, lactose or whey is also common in chocolate. Lactose and whey are critical ingredients because they can come from the by-products of cheese production which may use unclean ingredients in the manufacturing process. (Ah)