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The Law of Eating Horse Meat

There is an assumption that eating horse meat can increase vitality, vitality, increase stamina, heal aches, and others. So that it is expected to gradually be able to resolve the complaint I made.

Horses have long been known to have a large and strong force, can run fast, travel long distances. So it is often used to carry loads or draw carriage. Even in the field of machinery, the strength of a machine is measured by the unit of Horse Power. Indicates its strength can be relied upon. Then the horse meat is considered to be able to give strength to the lives of those who consume it.

Seeing a phenomenon like this, this is the explanation of the scholars regarding the law of consuming horse meat. 

Basically horse meat is halal. Including the category of Al-Baha’im, or Bahimatul-An’am, group of farm animals. And the meat includes Ma’kulul lahm. The meat can be eaten. Although in one history mentioned, in the time of the Prophet. never been allowed to eat it, temporarily, is temporary. Because there are conditional needs at the time. That is needed as part of a tool or means of war.

The context of the prohibition on eating horse meat at that time was in order to meet the needs of war. In the rules of Usul-Fiqh it says, “Al-Hukmu yaduuru ma’a‘ illatihi, the form of wa ‘adaman”. The determination of the law depends on the ‘illat, the presence or absence of ‘illat. Same with the current conditions, for example, where the government makes a regulation prohibiting the slaughter of productive female cows. Because it will interfere with even hinder the breeding of domestic cattle, which is very necessary to support the needs of the animal protein community. If someone violates it, they can be fined or even sentenced to prison. In Fiqhiyyah language or rules it belongs to the Makruh Tahrim category. The legal provisions in Fiqhiyyah are Makruh, but in practice it is forbidden to do, 

In the hadith narrated from Jabir bin Abdillah, he said, “In the conquest of Khoibar, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam forbade eating benign donkey meat, and he allowed horse meat.” (Narrated by Bukhari 3982 and Muslim 1941).

In another hadith narrated from Jabir bin Abdillah, he recounted: “We once enlisted with the Prophet sallallaahu‘ alayhi wa sallam, and we ate horse meat and drank the milk.” (Narrated by Ad-Daruquthni, al-Baihaqi. An-Nawawi said: The Sanad is Saheeh).

However, in the opinion of Abu Hanifah and two of his closest students: Abu Yusuf and Muhammad bin Hasan as-Syaibani, horse meat is ruling to eat. Hanafiyah scholars say that eating horse meat is makruh. In the book of al-Mausu’ah al-Fiqhiyah al-Kuwaitiyah is mentioned as follows; “And halal from animals is eating horses and giraffes. Hanafiyah scholars say, “Eating horses is Makruh Tanzih.” (with the category of Makruh) 

Makruh Tanzih itself is everything that (understood) is forbidden by Syara ‘but not explicitly. Only understood through the proposition that is still Zhanni. In another explanation, Makruh Tanzih was defined by leaving it better than doing it, even though there was no penalty in doing so. (Al-Mustashfa, 1 / 215-216). 

The opinion of those who forego eating horse meat, based on the proposition in the An-Nahl verses 5 to 7, Allah mentions about Bahimatul An’am (camels, cows, and goats). God mentioned the benefits humans have got with the animal, including the benefits to be eaten. Then in verse 8 God mentions another type of animal: “He created horses, bighals (mules of horses with donkeys), and donkeys, so that you can ride and decorate them. He also created creatures that you don’t know about.” (Surah An-Nahl: 8).

In this 8th verse Allah does not mention their function (the animals) to be eaten. Even though Allah mentioned the benefits of ‘being eaten’ to Bahimatul An’am mentioned in the previous verse. 

But this argument is refuted. Arguing with this verse to punish the consequences of eating horse meat is to conclude the incorrect proposition. Because the mention of the function of the horse, bighal, and khimar to be ridden and as decoration, does not at all indicate that this animal should not be used for anything else (to be eaten). It is said that the benefits of ‘being able to ride and as decoration’ are generally the benefits derived from horses.

In addition, the halal nature of horse meat is also because there is no argument or text that prohibits it with Sharih (clear and firm). The scholars explain, horses are not included in the category of illegitimate animals, forbidden for consumption. Like savage, Khabaits (disgusting), Jallalah (eating unclean), fanged animals with fangs that prey and attack enemies / prey. 

It is emphasized in the verse of the Qur’an which means: “And justifies for them Ath-Thoyyibaat (all that is good) and forbids them Al-Khobaits (all that is bad, disgusting).” (Qur’an, 7: 157).

It is mentioned in the hadith narrated by Ibn ‘Umar, “The Prophet of Allah sallallaahu ih alayhi wa sallam forbade from consuming street animals and milk produced from him.” (Narrated by Abu Dawud No. 3785 and At-Tirmidzi No. 1824)

In another hadith, which is narrated from Abu Hurairah, the Messenger of Allah said, “All animals that are fanged, eat it is haram.” [Narrated by Muslim]. 

Also narrated by Idris Al-Khalulani, he heard Abu Tsa’labah al-Khutsani say, “The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam forbade eating any fanged beasts.” (Narrated by Bukhari no. 5530 and Muslim no. 1932)

Furthermore, from Ibn ‘Abbas, he said, “The Prophet sallallaahu‘ alayhi wa sallam forbade eating any fanged beasts that were fanged, and every type of bird that had nails to grip.” (Narrated by Muslim no. 1934).

Even so, the halal meat according to the scholars who justify it, must still be based on the requirements Mu’tabar such as must be slaughtered sharply, and other provisions set by the Fatwa Commission of Indonesia Council of Ulama (MUI) in terms of slaughtering animals in accordance with Sharia principles.

Wallahu a’lam. (USM)

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