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LPPOM MUI

The Contemporary Food World Is Similar To Wilderness, Must Be Vigilant

By: Drs. H. Aminudin Yakub, M.A.

(Lecturer at UIN Syahid Jakarta, Member of KF MUI)

Determination of halal must be done by institutions that are authoritative, have the authority, authority and ability, or scientific capacity that is legally recognized by the community or the government, with the representation of scientists and scholars. 

The authoritative institution is the Indonesia Council of Ulama (MUI), where the MUI represents the scientific experts and scholars who collaborate on the determination of halal products that gather at The Assessment Institute for Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics Indonesia Council of Ulama (LPPOM MUI) and the Fatwa Commission of MUI.

With the development of food science and technology that continues to this day, then in order to determine the halal status of a product, an in-depth study is needed, both in terms of science and the Fiqhiyyah Rule or Islamic law. Offcourse, at this time, an animal, for example, can be used not only for its flesh, but also for all parts of its body. Even including the fur can be utilized as finished food products consumed by humans. Note the meaning of the verse: “It is forbidden for you (to eat) carcasses, blood, pork, (animal flesh) to be slaughtered in a name other than Allah, who is strangled, who has been hit, who has fallen on the head, and who has been torn to pieces by wild animals, unless you have time to slaughter him.” (Surah Al-Maidah, 5: 3)

In the verse it says about pork, in the past, what was generally eaten from animals was only meat. But nowadays, with the development of science and food technology, it turns out that all parts of the pig can be used to be eaten directly, or processed and processed into food, medicine and cosmetics. Like the skin for crackers or even collagen, for cosmetic ingredients. Similarly, the skin and bones are processed into gelatin, for the capsule shell material, such as blood, serum, and even enzymes, for medical purposes, or as a medium for microbial breeding; including innards, even the fur, etc.

This wide use, obviously many are not understood by the general public. Like the use of animal hair into L-cysteine material that is used for developers in the process of making bread. So of course it must be known the type of animal whose fur is processed into Cysteine, whether it comes from halal animals, such as cattle and / or goats; or from animals that are forbidden in Islam, such as pigs. Furthermore, even if the animal is halal, it needs to be further investigated, whether it is slaughtered in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law, or not, if the slaughter is not in accordance with sharia principles, then he will be punished by haram also for the consumption of Muslims.

Reviewed from Sharia Aspects

If in the past, animals that were consumed might be limited to the types of chickens, goats, sheep, cattle and camels, for example, now, developing very diverse. It is also include Cochineal insects which are used for food coloring. Well, that certainly needs to be examined from the sharia aspect. So that Muslims are protected from consuming materials that turned out to be forbidden.

Therefore, if there is one type of food, such as bread, it must be examined in depth. First, the raw materials are examined, such as processed wheat, sugar, etc., how halal. Furthermore, supporting materials such as bread improver (ingredients for bread developers), which turned out to be made from L-Cysteine. After reviewing, it turns out that L-Cysteine material is made from feathers or it could even be from human hair. Then it needs to be studied more deeply about the halal aspects. Because the scholars have agreed that consumption for materials made from human organs is unlawful. Next again, the bread has very attractive colors. Then the coloring agent must also be investigated. And so on. 

Must Be Done by Authoritative Institutions

It all shows that today’s food world is like a wilderness. Everything can be processed for raw materials and supporting materials in the food production process. From here, the determination of halal must be done by institutions that are authoritative, have authority, authority and ability, or scientific capacity that is legally recognized by the community or the government, with the representation of scientists and scholars.

The authoritative institution is the Indonesia Council of Ulama (MUI), where the MUI represents the scientific experts and scholars who collaborate on the determination of halal products that gather at The Assessment Institute for Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics Indonesia Council of Ulama (LPPOM MUI) and the Fatwa Commission of MUI.

Based on the authority, on the Decree of the Minister of Religion Number 982 of 2019 concerning halal certification services issued on November 12, 2019, LPPOM MUI has the authority to conduct inspection / test the halal of a product. Whereas MUI, in this case the MUI Fatwa Commission, has the authority to determine the halal law of a product.

The variety of foods that are processed, partly stem from intuition or human instincts that have high curiosity, get bored with things that are considered normal, and therefore always want to try something new. For scientists, curiosity drives them to conduct research and experimentation. For example, they see an animal that was not used before. And then, they, the scientists, are also trying to do tests to use it. So that developing various types of processed foods with a variety of materials that were not previously used. As for producers, human instincts who always want to try new ones are also used as market opportunities. From here they make various variants of processed foods from the results of the scientists’ research, with a variety of attractive shapes, flavors and colors.

So related to Ath’immah Fiqh, Fiqh about food, first, the Qur’an and Al-Hadith explain something that is forbidden in several forms. First, it is directly called the type of object, such as pigs, blood, and carcasses. As in the paragraph mentioned above.

Next, some are forbidden because of its type. Such as wild animals, fanged, clutching, preying, etc. Consider the meaning of the Prophet’s hadith, including: “Every feral animal that is fanged, so eating it is haram.” (H.R. Muslim). In the Hadith from Abi Tsa’labah, it is also mentioned, “Rasulullah SAW forbids eating any fanged beasts.” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim), another hadith from Ibn ‘Abbas, he said, ” Rasulullah SAW) forbade eating any fanged beast, and every kind of bird that has nails to grip.” (Narrated by Muslim).

For those of us who believe, it is permissible to consume the good ones, according to the guidance in the Qur’an: “They ask you,” What is it for them? Say: “It is permissible for you all that is good …” (Surah Al-Maidah, 5: 4).

And conversely, it is forbidden because of the aspects of danger posed. As referred to in paragraph: “(Namely) those who follow the Apostle, the Prophet whose ummi (whose name) they find written in the Torah and the Gospel that is on their side, which tells them to do what is ma’ruf and forbids them from doing what is wrong and justifies to they are all good and forbid them all that is bad and remove from them the burdens and fetters which are on them, then, those who believe in him. Glorify him, help him and follow the bright light sent down to him (the Koran), they are the lucky ones. “(Surah Al-A’raaf, 7: 157).

With these three things, the scholars made the Fiqhiyyah Rule. Among them,“Al-Ashlu fil asy-ya’i al-ibahah”. The law of origin of all things or all types of food is Mubah, or allowed to be consumed. But this rule has a sequel: “illa ma dalla daliil ‘ala tahriimihi”. Unless there is an argument or Qarinah, that causes it to be haram. So this is the function and role of this fatwa institution, or MUI Fatwa Commission. Namely to examine and explain whether a type of material, or animal, such as Cochineal insects, or enzymes, or even microbes, including species of animals that are forbidden or not, by referring to the three categories that have been described in the Quran and Al-Hadith texts . To clarify, whether it is prohibited or not, including the types of microbes, or even animal enzymes that are used in the food production process, etc.

Indeed, everything that God created on this earth is for humans. As referred to in paragraph, which means: “And He bowed unto you, all that is in heaven, and all that is on earth; all (as a mercy) than Him. Verily in that are indeed signs (the power of Allah) for those who think. ” (Surah Al-Jatsiyah, 45:13).

“And He created livestock for you; there is warmth and various kinds of benefits, and part of it you eat. ” (Surah An-Nahl, 16:5)

“And it is He, Allah Who subdues the sea (for you), so that you may eat from it fresh meat (fish), and you bring out of the sea the adornment you wear; and you see the ark sailing on it, and that you may seek (profit) from His gifts, and that you will be grateful. ” (Surah An-Nahl: 16:14).

But of course humans must choose, which are useful and good, and which also causes mudharat and dangerous. Halal or unclean. And as people of faith, of course we must follow the rules of faith that have been explained in the Quran and Al-Hadith and ijtihad of the scholars. So that: our lives can be saved, the world and the hereafter. “Then eat the lawful again from the good fortune that God has given you; and thank God, if you worship Him only.” (Surah An-Nahl, 16:114). “Verily, Allah puts the believers and righteous deeds into jannah which flows underneath the rivers. And disbelievers have fun (in the world) and they eat like animals. And (hell) jahannam is where they live.” (Surah Muhammad, 47: 12). These are some guidelines for us in this aspect of consumption, to be understood and practiced wholeheartedly, and may Allah bless the world until the eternal afterlife. Amen ya Allah Robbal ‘Alamin. (USM)

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